STORYTELLING IN INDIA

Storytelling is the practice of sharing stories with others, either spontaneously or with acting and embellishment. Each civilization has its own myths or epics, which are shared for the purpose of entertainment, education, cultural preservation, or moral instruction.


Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot, characters, and narrative point of view. They are important for engaging the reader and drawing them into the story.


The term "storytelling," as it is commonly used, can be interpreted to mean both oral storytelling and broader methods for unfolding or revealing the narrative of a tale using other media.


Around the world, storytelling has many forms and media. But, regardless of location, culture, or medium, every narrative serves a similar goal. Puppets are used to communicate ideas, and values, and to amuse people.


People would gather together before television, the internet, and cellphones to listen to accounts of their history, folklore, and current events. Every state and district in India has its own style of storytelling, which is influenced by the region's distinctive cultural heritage.


Some tell stories, while others utilize props like puppets, masks, and even musical instruments. Some are delivered through the use of dance and music. India is a land of stories. Storytelling is an important part of Indian culture and has been for centuries.


Storytellers are an integral part of society, and their stories play a vital role in transmitting cultural values and traditions from one generation to the next. They keep the traditions and history of India alive by telling stories that have been passed down through the generations.


Storytelling is an important way to teach values and lessons, and it is also a way to entertain people. In ancient India, storytelling was used to teach children about the world around them.


The art of storytelling is an important part of Indian culture.  In this article, we will explore the history and importance of storytelling in India. We will also take a look at the different types of storytelling found in Indian society, and learn about some of the most famous Indian folktales.

Indian Storytelling

 

Katha, or religious storytelling in India, is a form of performing arts that are ritual events in Hinduism. It generally features trained storytellers who recite sacred Hindu scriptures such as the Puranas and The Ramayana before offering an interpretation.

 

In some cases, Kathas are performed in homes, usually with smaller tales connected to the theme. By demonstrating the effects of human action (karma), Kathas instill ethical principles in audiences. South India has a long history of storytelling and spiritual discussion.

 

Religious authorities were familiar with the scriptures employed in temples and monasteries for discussion. Along with wall paintings in temples and shrines all over India, they also serve as a means of interpretation and narrative with a religious focus.

 

The propagation of Hinduism and the creation of awareness in worshippers of the characters of the deities were aided by Katha with imagery in temples.

Storytelling in Indian Culture

 

Purana-Pravachana, Kathakalakshepa, and folk stories are the three primary Katha traditions:

 

The Purana-Pravachana is a sermon in which the pauranika is a spiritual commentator of the scriptures. These tales are typically about a holy man or an episode from an Indian epic, and they're generally religious in nature.

 

Storytellers interpret the scripture read in various ways to provide a broader viewpoint on it. Upanyasa and Pravachanas are Sanskrit and Tamil studies courses. Music is utilized for only a few lines of recitation. Pravachan storytellers employ the approach of reading the Scriptures and conveying their meaning.

 

Tamil and Sanskrit are used in the telling of stories known as Kathakalakshepam, which employ both anecdotes and myths. A storyteller skilled in traditional music weaves the core narrative with songs, dancing, and digressions in these legends.

 

Kathakalakshepam literally translates as "narrating the tales of ancient texts to the general public in a comprehensive manner." The enthusiastic performer narrates, performs, and comments on stories and themes from Indian mythology.

 

With this approach, the narrative teller must have theological and literary expertise. They must be knowledgeable about the epics and ancient writings. Being resourceful is an essential character trait in a storyteller since they must convey the subject through music, spoken word, and performance.

 

The majority of folktales are about kings and queens, brave hunters, or clever animals. They contain moral admonishments such as "don't tell lies" and "don't steal." There are several different versions of the tale, and each community has its own telling. These stories were traditionally told or sung to children and grandchildren at home by moms and grandmothers.

 

Burra Katha, also known as Burra in Andhra Pradesh (South India), is a type of folklore. It's also referred to as Burra in Andhra Pradesh (South India). A Burra is a drum that looks like a human skull. Travelers tell stories while pounding on the drum during this practice.

 

In Tamil Nadu, southern India, folk tales are known as Villu Paatu, and they're typically told with a stringed instrument that looks like a bow. The stories are epic ballads and the vehicle for promoting social welfare initiatives such as AIDS education, family planning, and election information is the word.

 

In local languages, each province of India has developed its own style and tradition of storytelling. Epics and Puranas are stories from antiquity that were once recited in Sanskrit, the story material shared by most areas.

 

The teller is adaptable in their performance and may humorously narrate interesting stories. The storyteller is perceived as a teacher who is knowledgeable in Sanskrit and other dialects' ancient texts. He translates religious and mythological writings from the past to the present-day audience.

What are Indian Storytellers Called?

 

Indian Storytellers are called Kathavachak or Vyas. Kathas sometimes take place in households, involving smaller stories related to the Vrat Katha genre. Pravachan is a commentary following the recitation of stories from Hindu religious texts, such as the Puranas, the Ramayana, or Bhagavata Purana.

 

Kathas usually involve priest-narrators who recite these texts. The word "Katha" comes from the Sanskrit root "Kath" which means "to tell, to narrate". Katha also carries the connotation of a "wise saying" or "teaching" since often times these stories impart moral lessons.

 

Over time, the use of the word "Katha" has evolved to also refer to non-religious stories and even contemporary fiction. Thus, Katha has become a popular storytelling tradition in India that is enjoyed by people of all ages.

How Stories Were Told in Ancient India?

 

In local languages, each area of India has established its own style and approach to storytelling. The tale content that binds most regions together is ancient epics and Puranas, which are Sanskrit-language stories of wisdom. The performer is often a woman covered in black fabric, known as the noh dance's "black jane."

 

The first performance was given at a temple and at weddings and other religious (or social) gatherings. nThe single performer should be adaptable in presentation and capable of amusingly telling stories.

 

The narrator is recognized as a teacher who is knowledgeable in ancient Sanskrit and other vernaculars as well as interpreting religious and mythical texts from the past to today's generation. The ancient epic poetry of South India is well-known and respected.

 

Religious scholars, such as the Oduvars, were skilled in the texts used for temple and monastery preaching; in Tamil Nadu, they were known as Kathaprasangam. This is a ritualistic music style, and it's often performed by scholars such as Suki Sivam and Trichy Kalyanaraman.

 

The interpretation of a shloka is dependent on the musician's ability. Pravachan, Patakam, Upanyasam, Harikatha, Kalakshepa, Harikeerthan, and Villupattu are religious interpretations and stories in a variety of forms.

 

The same goal was served by wall paintings in Hindu temples and shrines. In temples, Katha with images aided the spread of Hinduism and the formation of worshipers' awareness of the deities' traits.

Why Storytelling is Important in Indian Culture?

 

Indian storytelling is an ancient tradition that has been passed down for generations. Katha is one type of Indian storytelling that is often used as a way to instill moral values in children.

 

These stories usually reveal the consequences of human action or karma. Kathas often take place in households, involving smaller stories related to the genre.

 

This type of Indian storytelling is still popular today and continues to be passed down from generation to generation.

 

Indian storytelling is a unique and important part of Indian culture that helps to keep the culture alive.

Indian Storytelling Traditions

 

Here are some of the storytelling traditions of India:

 

Puducherry: In ancient Tamil culture, a specialty called Kolam, which involves drawing designs on the thresholds of homes, is a rare mix of science and religion. The designs are geometric in nature, usually following mathematical rules, but they have a religious significance. Despite the fact that kolam is a daily practice, it holds a significant place during ceremonies.

 

The art of decorating rice with colored threads is popular in Puducherry and Kolam competitions are held annually. This craft is known by various names in India: Muggu in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Aripan in Bihar, Alpana in West Bengal, and Rangoli in Maharashtra and other states.

 

In ancient Kerala, Kalamezhuthu, an age-old custom in the region, involved using colored powder in five different hues to draw ritualistic pictures of deities on the floor. This inspired the notion of painting temples, churches, and palaces as well. Kerala mural painting, a new art form that evolved from the Meena Bharat school, was named after it. It developed into a type of temple art in the 14th to 16th centuries.

 

Uttar Pradesh: A classic Sanjhi is created with flowers and colors on the floor or in water (in a shallow basin or on a plate) in Braj. Temple art originated around the 16th century when it was transformed into braiding. The temples that continue the tradition, on the other hand, do so only in a few locations, with the plan worked on throughout the day but revealed only at dusk after the aarti.

 

In the village of Choksumti in the state of Sikkim, Singhi Chham is a dance performed by members of the Bhutia community. The dancers stage this dance to propitiate the invincible ruler of snow, the Khangchendzonga, wearing snow lion costumes.

 

In Andhra Pradesh, Tholu Bommalata is anything but typical. The leather puppets are illuminated with light from oil lamps and projected onto a white cloth screen. The black cloth screen that masks the stage's contents is a representation of the evil spirits, and eleven translucent colored shadows are projected behind it.

 

They aren't as dark or grey as normal shadows. The audience seated on the opposite side of the cloth screen perceives them as colorful translucent shadows.

Storytelling in India - Conclusion


Storytelling has been an integral part of Indian culture for generations, with each region developing its own unique style of narration.


Unlike other well-documented forms of storytelling through song in Tamil Nadu - like the Katha Kalakshepam from Thanjavur - Kathaiyum Paattum is a more informal art performed, as experts say, under the radar.


These kinds of stories were traditionally shared amongst villagers to narrate events or experiences, or to teach certain morals to children at home. India’s storytelling traditions are as diverse as the culture of the country.


From the more formal styles like Katha Kalakshepam to the more informal ones like Kathaiyum Paattum, there is a style of storytelling for everyone in India. So next time you’re looking for a good story, make sure to look into India’s rich storytelling traditions.